Substitutions: All Purpose Gluten Free Flour

I get asked for substitutions on my recipes by a lot of readers. I’ve decided to address some of these questions, and explain my thoughts on them. Today I’ll be discussing “all purpose gluten free flour”. Keep in mind, these are my thoughts only, and help explain why I write my recipes the way that I do.


Substitutions: All Purpose Gluten Free Flour | The Baking Beauties


“Can I replace all the individual flours with an all purpose mix?”

My thoughts? I wouldn’t, but if you want to, feel free to experiment with it.

There are a few reasons I don’t use the all purpose mixes that are available.

  • Availability and use – 5 1/2 years ago, when I began baking gluten-free, there were very few gluten free flours readily available in the stores, much less any all purpose blends. I had to use what I could find. The first gluten-free cookbook I bought was Bette Hagman’s The Gluten-Free Gourmet Bakes Bread. In her book, Hagman lists her own flour blends – each blend being used for a different kind of bread. This required me to have 3 separate blends on hand. Then I baked a recipe from another blogger – they had their own flour blend. Before I knew it, I had all my flours tied up in a variety of flour blends, each with a different intended use. Being a new gluten-free baker, and wanting to follow the recipes as-written, I didn’t feel I could use a different blend than the one called for in the recipe. This resulted in a drawer full of blended flours that could only be used in a handful of recipes. (My early recipes use a flour blend, but the recipes shared in the last 3 years use individual flours and starches.)
  • To many combinations – To mimic the texture of wheat-based baked goods, we have to use a variety of gluten free flours and starches, plus a binder (xanthan gum, guar gum, pixie dust*, etc). Unlike wheat flour, where every all purpose flour is made up of ground wheat, an all purpose gluten free flour can be made up of any combination of flours & starches. Some include bean flours. Some have no binders. So when a recipe calls for “all purpose gluten free flour”, unless a brand is listed, the end results can vary greatly depending on the blend you are using.
  • End result – All flours and starches have different nutritional values, different amounts of protein, different tastes, and different weights. The way that the flours and starches are combined changes the texture of the baked goods. A Cinnamon Bun, Bundt Cake,  and Cookies will all require different textures and tastes. I don’t know if you could find an all purpose blend that would work well in all applications, and if you could, it doesn’t mean that someone in another state (or country) would have access to that same flour blend.


So, what do I stock?

The flours and starches that I keep on hand at all times are:

Of course, there are many other great gluten-free flours available. The only reason I’ve limited my pantry to the flours mentioned is because those are the ones that I use on a regular basis.

You are welcome to experiment on my recipes using an all purpose gluten free flour blend, however I can not advise you on it since I have not prepared the recipe that way. If you would like to use an all purpose flour blend, here are a few sites that use it in their recipes:


*NOTE: I have not tried using the Pixie Dust mixture, but have heard from many other bakers that it works well. If you have any questions about it, please ask the creator of the recipe, Dr. Jean Layton.


Disclosure: This post contains affiliate links. If you make a purchase using these links – your cost remains the same, but I earn a small percentage to help support this blog. Thank you!


  1. Kathryn says

    Great post. A good tip is to read through more than just the recipe posted on a blog to see what that person means by All Purpose Blend. Seems there’s a lot to choose from.Read the comment section as well since many in this gluten free baking community are willing to share their own tips and experiences with subbing in recipes.Also I had to laugh …. I thought Pixie Dust was sarcasm. Learned something new today. :)

  2. Laurel says

    Well done. It’s a learning curve. I started out with those blends and decided I hated GF baked goods. I have now changed my ways with the help of a few Gluten Free blogging angels, like you. Also, it has to be said, if you have other allergy issues using a prepackaged blend can be a nightmare.
    Wonderful post, Jeanine.

    • says

      It is definitely a learning curve! It does get easier when you start to play around a bit, or sometimes just guess. 😉 But you’re right, if you can’t tolerate corn, rice, potato, etc, a preblend is definitely not for you! Good point, Laurel. :)

  3. Ouida Lampert says

    Jeanine, how do you store your flours? I keep reading that brown rice flour, millet flour, sorghum flour (and buckwheat flour) are prone to going rancid – but mine seem okay out. The brown rice flour keeps going into the refrigerator, and then having to come out because I need the space. Sigh.


    • says

      I know that it is suggested that you store your flours in the fridge or freezer, but I go through mine so quickly, I just store them in air-tight containers in my drawer (pictured above). Another thing to remember is that if you do store it in the fridge or freezer, you have to let it come to room temp before baking with it.
      I do store my ground flax seed and any almond flour that I might have in the freezer though.

  4. says

    Hi Jeanine, I’m enjoying your site and user comments. I too have quite a few flour mixes that I’m slow in using up. I’m reworking a few of them a bit at a time.
    I really enjoy experiments for the most part. I am a baking professional and have pulled out some hairs with some of them: such as bagels that were edible for about an hour, with okay flavor. After the hour they became hockey pucks.
    All of that aside, I keep all of my flours in canning jars which I can then right on with a sharpie marker. Rubbing alcohol will take sharpie off of glass and plastic, a handy thing when you are changing or deleting a flour type.
    Thanks for all of your incites!

  5. says

    I like to make my own flours as it is hard to find store bought GF flours where I live and if I do find some they only come in packages of 1 cup making is so much fun as a learning product.I do find some nut flours go bad before grain flours.When I make nut flours I find my coconut flour will so bad well before my almond flour does.I guess I will have to make them in the dry season and see what happens,maybe it is the weather making them go bad.I store all my flours in zip locks bags doubled as I do not have room in my fridge.I mix make my flours with grain flours and nuit flours and add cornstarchand xatham gums to make an all purpose flour.I have not had a bad batch of food yet.Touch wood.

    • says

      That’s exactly one of the reasons I don’t bother with preblended flours, it’s just too hard to find anything locally.
      Nut flours, coconut flour, ground flax seed, etc, should be stored in the fridge or freezer. They do have a tendency to go rancid quickly.

  6. Katrina says

    I have found most recipes that call for an all purpose GF flour blend, I tend to avoid – unless of course they have included a “recipe” to mix that flour blend at the end of that recipe. All too often, I was finding when I tried to bake with the all pupose blends, it would be the typical gluten free issues – falling apart and cracking, couldn’t manipulate the dough, or it was far too much like cake batter to be able to work with. I have found in the past few months I love baking again. I can create such tasty wonderful items again. And I’ve focused on keeping the basics on hand – brown rice, white rice sweet rice, … My list is almost exactly the same as yours. I do have a couple other flours, but use so little of them, I don’t really consider them staples.

    • Pamela Bagwell says

      Katrina – what happened in the last few months to renew your love of baking? I, too, used to love to bake. Key words, used to! Would love to know any tricks you found to instill a new confidence?

  7. Judy says

    Has anyone tried the new Robin Hood Gluten Free flour? I am anxiously waiting to try it out on a few things. Christmas Dinner, I hope can have a few gluten free baking items and perhaps making some gravy for my adult daughter that has Celiac disease. Just diagnosed in the last year.
    Thank you All for any advice,

    • Brian says

      Tried this flour in a pie crust, cookies and tarts. Terrible. The texture is gritty and heavy.
      Hardly suitable even as a sauce thickener. It’s pretty much a waste of time. Had to throw
      out a whole Saskatoon berry pie, which was inedible because of the crust.
      Awful product.

      • Dorothy says

        I just bought some before Christmas 2014 to make my daughter, who was coming home for the holidays, some special treats. Believe me they haven’t changed their formula at all. You nailed it gritty/sandy texture and awful taste. I just emailed them as they do have a money back guarantee.
        On the hunt for other ideas now.

        • says

          Ugh, sorry to hear that, Dorothy. Hopefully you will be refunded your money. I’ve heard good things about Cup 4 Cup, but not sure where you’d buy it. I know Sobeys and Superstore both have their own brands, and Bob’s Red Mill now has a 1-to-1 blend as well. Again – that’s why I stick with the individual flours – so many varieties, it’s hard to know what will work and what won’t.

          • says

            I tried the Bob’s Red Mill 1-to-1 over Christmas. For most things, I am like most people here and just keep a variety of flours on hand (having, again, found at the beginning that I needed to make my own blends of flour, but having learned, mostly from you that it’s easier to keep a variety).

            However, I bought the 1-to-1 specifically with the idea of being able to substitute it cup-for-cup in my old favorite Christmas cookie recipes. I tried it in two recipes — raspberry-filled shortbread cookies and chocolate butter cookies — and was very pleased with the results.

            Later, I tried it in my old favorite focaccia bread recipe and was disappointed. Bottom line, I am going to use this yearly for my Christmas cookies that I’ve been missing. I would say that in my limited trial of it, it works very well for cookies.

          • says

            So many it’s better for low gluten things, like cookies and muffins, but not for things that require more gluten, like bread. Interesting – thanks for the feedback, Mrs. T. I’ve been wondering how this flour blend behaved.

  8. Wendy says

    Hi, I used the Robin Hood gluten free flour for the gluten free chocolate chip cookie recipe they have on their site. I found the flour to have a definite taste and smell. It has sugar beet fibre in it and I’m thinking that is what might give it its unique scent. I myself thought it was ok in the cookies, but I definitely wouldn’t use it for something like pancakes or bread because of the taste. The cookies turned out well and the flavour isn’t that noticeable. I guess I’m just not quite sure what to think about sugar beet fibre.

    • says

      It is best to store your gluten free flour in the fridge or freezer, where they can keep for months. I usually just store mine in air-tight containers, since I go through it fairly quickly. If you do store it in the fridge or freezer, be sure it comes to room temperature before baking with it, or the end results won’t be the same.

  9. Jill says

    Help…completely new to gluten free baking and cannot have potato starch or corn anything. What else can I use? How do I know which amounts to use? Is arrowroot interchangeable with potato starch 1:1?

    Thanks so much,

  10. Tin says

    Hi! I’m just starting in gluten free baking. Just wondering, do you know how to make gluten free baking powder? Thanks

  11. Brigitte says

    Hi, I just find your website and also new to gluten free. Yesterday I spent a day at my mother after asking her to help and show me how to make home maid bread since the store bought tasted terrible. My mother doesn’t need to eat without gluten but jump on the occasion to help me out. After searching for info’s on flours to bake with, I discovered the Robin Hood all purpose GF. Hum!.. their you go, no mixing with all sorts of flours sounds simple and straight to the point. It was a disaster.We try 2 different times, thinking we did something wrong. My mother did not understand how a bread could be so difficult to make. Mixing very difficult to do, it dries, cracks..After baking them both, smell and taste was bad. I’m very disappointed, I long for my tuna salad sandwich …The smell of that flour coincides with the taste (awful). I will not attempt the cookie recipe. What I would like to know, if I buy those flours and mix them together, will I get that AWFUL taste again. I am starting to loose faith and dislike baking now. The only great thing I had out of that day, was time with my 74 year old mom. We had to laugh it out in the end but still no solution to simply eat good tasting bread like I used to.

    • says

      Hi Brigitte! I do not recommend that flour blend, or any other gluten-free flour blend, for the exact reasons you mentioned. I’ve had fabulous results with the recipes I make using individual flours though, and it costs a lot less in the long run than buying the preblended flours.


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